- Japanese Encephalitis
- Malaria Prophylaxis
- Rabies (pre and post exposure)
- Yellow Fever
- Tuberculosis Tests
- Hepatitis A (adult and pediatric)
- Hepatitis B (adult and pediatric)
- Combination Hepatitis A & Hepatitis B
- Meningococcal (Meningitis)
- Human Papillomavirus (HPV) – Cervical Cancer
- Influenza (Flu)
- Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR)
- Varicella (Chickenpox)
A Liver disease spread by contaminated food and water. It can also be spread by consuming food or drink that has been handled by an infected person. It is rarely spread through sexual contact.
Symptoms include a sudden onset of fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). Some people have no symptoms, while others have symptoms that last 1-6 months. Most people recover with no lasting liver damage.
Hepatitis A is a common infection among travelers to developing countries. Travelers going to rural areas in developing countries have a higher risk of getting hepatitis A infections than other travelers. However, hepatitis A infections can happen in urban areas with “standard” tourist accommodations as well. The vaccine for Hepatitis A is given in a 2-dose series. The second vaccination is given 6-12 months after the first dose.
A contagious virus that is transmitted through blood, blood products, and other body fluids. Travelers can become infected through unprotected sex with an infected person, injection drug use, and transfusions with unscreened blood.
Symptoms include a sudden fever, tiredness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, dark urine, joint pain, and yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). Symptoms may last from several weeks to several months. Some people who get hepatitis B develop lifelong (chronic) hepatitis B. This can cause people to die early from liver disease and liver cancer.
This vaccine is a 3-dose vaccine. The second vaccine is given 1-2 months after the first dose and then the third dose is given 6-12 months later than the first dose. The vaccine is over 90% effective, and has been considered a routine childhood vaccine since 1995.
An illness caused by a virus, that is spread through mosquito bites.
Symptoms include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, rash, and pain in the eyes, joints, and muscles. After you are bitten by an infected mosquito, symptoms can take up to 2 weeks to develop but usually end in a week. In severe cases, symptoms may include intense stomach pain, repeated vomiting, bleeding from the nose or gums, and death. There is currently no vaccine or medicine to prevent dengue. Travelers can protect themselves by preventing mosquito bites.
An illness that is spread through coughing and sneezing. If an infected person has skin sores, it can also be spread by touching the sores.
Symptoms of diphtheria include fever, sore throat, and a thick coating in the throat and nose. Neck swelling and skin sores can also occur. In severe disease, swelling of the heart and nerves can occur, as well as trouble breathing. Death occurs in 5%-10% of cases with breathing problems. People who have diphtheria with skin sores usually recover. Travelers going to developing countries are at highest risk for diphtheria. Industrialized countries have low rates of diphtheria due to the availability of a vaccine that prevents the disease.
In the United States, diphtheria vaccine is only available in combination with other vaccines that protect you against diseases such as tetanus and pertussis. The diphtheria vaccine comes in three forms: Tdap and Td (for adults), and DTaP (for children).
The flu (influenza) is a contagious respiratory disease caused by flu viruses. It is spread from person to person by coughing or sneezing. It can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces.
Symptoms of flu include fever or feeling feverish/chills, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, and tiredness. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea also can occur but are more common in children than adults. Young children, senior citizens, and people who have chronic health conditions are at risk for serious complications. These complications can include pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections, dehydration, worsening of chronic medical conditions, and death. Flu is common throughout the world. The flu season lasts from October through May in the Northern Hemisphere and from April through September in the Southern Hemisphere. In tropical countries, flu can be spread year-round.
Japanese encephalitis (JE)
A disease spread through mosquito bites.
Symptoms usually take 5-15 days to develop and include fever, headache, vomiting, confusion, and difficulty moving. Symptoms that develop later include swelling around the brain and coma. JE is a serious disease that may cause death.
Travelers who go to Asia are at risk for getting Japanese encephalitis. For most travelers the risk is extremely low but depends on where you are going, the time of year, your planned activities, and the length of the trip. You are at higher risk if you are traveling to rural areas, will be outside frequently, or will be traveling for a long period of time. In mild climates in northern Asia the risk for JE is greater in the summer and fall. In tropical and subtropical areas, there is a risk year-round.
A disease spread through mosquito bites.
Symptoms usually appear within in 7-30 days but can take up to one year to develop. Symptoms include high fevers, shaking chills, and flu-like illness. Without treatment, malaria can cause severe illness and even death. Malaria occurs in Africa, Central and South America, parts of the Caribbean, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the South Pacific. People spending time outdoors, including sleeping outside, are at higher risk for malaria. Every year about 1500 cases of malaria and 5 deaths occur among international travelers from the United States. Travelers can protect themselves from malaria by taking prescription medicine and preventing mosquito bites.
A disease caused by a virus that is spread through the air by breathing, coughing, or sneezing. Measles virus is highly contagious and can remain so for up to 2 hours in the air or on surfaces.
Symptoms of measles are rash, high fever, cough, runny nose, and red, watery eyes. Some people who become sick with measles also get an ear infection, diarrhea, or a serious lung infection, such as pneumonia. Although severe cases are rare, measles can cause swelling of the brain and even death.
Meningococcal disease can refer to any illness that is caused by the type of bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis. Meningococcal disease is a contagious infection spread by close contact with an infected person, such as living together or kissing. Quick medical attention is extremely important if meningococcal disease is suspected.
The symptoms of meningococcal disease can vary based on the type of illness that develops. Common symptoms of meningococcal meningitis include sudden fever, headache, and stiff neck. Other symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity to light, and confusion. Children and infants may show different signs, such as inactivity, irritability, vomiting, or poor reflexes. Meningococcal disease can also cause an infection of the blood which can lead to tiredness, vomiting, cold hands and feet, chills, severe aches and pain, fast breathing, diarrhea, and a dark purple rash. Meningococcal disease is very serious and can be fatal. In fatal cases, deaths can occur in as little as a few hours.
Anyone can get meningococcal disease, but certain groups of people are at increased risk. Although meningococcal disease is found worldwide, the “meningitis belt” of sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates in the world. Rates of meningococcal disease are several times higher in the meningitis belt than in the US. The disease is most common in these countries during the dry season (December through June). Travelers who spend a lot of time with local populations in the meningitis belt during a large outbreak have the highest risk of contracting the disease. In addition to the meningitis belt, travelers to the Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia are also at risk. The Hajj has been associated with outbreaks of meningococcal disease in returning pilgrims and people in close contact with them.
A contagious disease that is spread when infected people cough, sneeze, or talk. Sharing items, like cups or drink cans, with infected people can also spread the virus. The virus can also live on items and surfaces touched by an infected person for several hours.
Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, loss of appetite, and swollen and tender salivary glands under the ears or jaw on one or both sides of the face (parotitis). Most people with mumps recover fully. However, mumps can occasionally cause complications, such as swelling of the brain, testicles (in males), and ovaries and breasts (in females), and temporary or permanent deafness.
Also known as “whooping cough,” is a contagious disease spread when infected people cough and sneeze near others.
Early symptoms are similar to a cold and include runny nose, low fevers, mild cough, and a pause in breathing for babies. Later symptoms of the disease include “fits” of many rapid coughs followed by a high-pitched “whoop,” vomiting, and exhaustion. Pertussis is very serious for babies. Among babies younger than 1 year of age who get pertussis, more than half will be hospitalized and 1 in 100 will die.
A contagious infection caused byStreptococcus pneumoniae bacteria (pneumococcus). These bacteria can cause many types of illnesses, including: pneumonia (infection of the lungs), ear infections, sinus infections, meningitis (infection of the covering around the brain and spinal cord), and bacteremia (blood stream infection). Pneumococcal disease is spread through coughing, sneezing, and close contact with an infected person.
Symptoms of pneumococcal disease depend on the part of the body that is infected. They can include fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, stiff neck, confusion and disorientation, sensitivity to light, joint pain, chills, ear pain, sleeplessness, and irritability. In severe cases, pneumococcal disease can cause brain damage, hearing loss, the loss of arms or legs, and death.
A disease caused by a virus that is mainly spread by person-to-person contact and eating or drinking items contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Polio can also be spread through water, other drinks, and raw or undercooked food. Most people with polio do not feel sick. Some people have only minor symptoms, such as fever, tiredness, nausea, headache, nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, stiffness in the neck and back, and pain in the arms and legs. Most people recover completely. In rare cases, polio causes permanent loss of muscle function in the arms or legs (usually the legs) or death.
From the late 1940s to the early 1950s, polio crippled around 35,000 people each year in the United States alone, making it one of the most feared diseases of the 20th century. By 1979, the United States was polio free. Internationally, substantial progress has been made in recent years, and only 3 countries remain where polio has never been stopped: Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan. The affected areas in these 3 countries have become smaller. Until polio is stopped everywhere, even polio-free countries are at risk for outbreaks.
Travelers going to certain parts of Africa and Asia may be at risk for polio. Everyone should be up-to-date with their routine polio vaccination series. In addition, a one-time adult polio vaccine booster dose is recommended for travelers to certain countries.
A deadly disease caused by a virus that is spread in the saliva of infected animals. All mammals can get rabies. People usually get rabies from licks, bites, or scratches from infected dogs and other animals such as bats, foxes, raccoons, and mongooses. Rabies affects the central nervous system, ultimately causing brain disease and death. Once symptoms of rabies appear, the disease is nearly always fatal, so prevention is especially important.
Travelers who may come into contact with wild or domestic animals are at risk for rabies. This includes travelers spending a lot of time outdoors (such as campers and cavers), travelers with occupational risks (such as veterinarians and wildlife professionals), and long-term travelers and expatriates. Children are also at higher risk because they often play with animals, might not report bites, and are more likely to be bitten on the head and neck.
Also called German measles, Rubella is a disease spread by the coughs and sneezes of infected people.
Symptoms include rash and fever for 2 to 3 days. Some people do not feel sick. If a pregnant woman gets rubella virus, her baby could have birth defects such as deafness, cataracts, heart defects, mental disabilities, and organ damage.
An illness that can occur after an injury with a contaminated object. The bacteria that cause tetanus are commonly found in soil and can get into the body through any type of break in the skin, such as wounds, burns, or animal bites. Tetanus is often called “lockjaw” because the jaw muscles tighten, and the person cannot open their mouth. Other symptoms of tetanus include headache, painful muscle stiffness, trouble swallowing, seizures, fever, and high blood pressure. Tetanus is very dangerous. It can cause difficulty breathing and paralysis. Even with intensive care, 10%–20% of people with tetanus die.
Tetanus occurs throughout the world, and international travel generally does not increase the risk. However, people who are doing humanitarian aid work, such as constructing or demolishing buildings, may be at higher risk. Anyone who is not vaccinated against tetanus is at risk if he or she is injured by a contaminated object, uses injection drugs, or has a medical procedure in an unhygienic setting.
A serious disease spread by contaminated food and water.
Symptoms of typhoid include lasting high fevers, weakness, stomach pains, headache, and loss of appetite. Some patients have constipation, and some have a rash. Internal bleeding and death can occur but are rare.
Typhoid fever is common in most parts of the world except in industrialized regions such as the United States, Canada, western Europe, Australia, and Japan, so travelers to the developing world should consider taking precautions. Travelers to Asia, Africa, and Latin America are especially at risk, and the highest risk for typhoid is in south Asia.
About 300 people get typhoid fever in the United States each year, and most of these people have recently traveled. About 22 million cases of typhoid fever and 200,000 related deaths occur worldwide each year.
A disease caused a virus, which is spread through mosquito bites.
Symptoms take 3–6 days to develop and include fever, chills, headache, backache, and muscle aches. About 15% of people who get yellow fever develop serious illness that can lead to bleeding, shock, organ failure, and sometimes death.
You should receive a yellow card called the International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis (ICVP) to prove that you have had yellow fever vaccine. Some countries require all travelers to show proof of yellow fever vaccination before they can enter the country. Other countries require proof of vaccination only if travelers have been in a risk area, so if you are visiting multiple countries, the order of travel may be important. Proof of vaccination is not valid until 10 days after you get the vaccine, so plan to get the vaccine early if you need it.
Note: CDC’s recommendation is different from the country’s requirement. A vaccine recommendation is designed to keep you from getting yellow fever; a vaccine requirement is the country’s attempt to keep travelers from bringing the yellow fever virus into the country. CDC does not have any control over other countries’ vaccine requirements or how they are enforced.